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What Is PCOS?

What Is PCOS?

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a very common hormone imbalance disorder that affects a significant number of reproductive-age females. Shockingly, it is estimated that PCOS may impact up to 20% of women aged 14-45 worldwide. Yes, you read it right – possibly 1 in every 5 women in their childbearing years could have PCOS! Despite its high prevalence, PCOS often goes undiagnosed. In fact, numerous women are unaware of their condition until they face difficulties getting pregnant and discover that their hormones are not functioning as they should.

Fortunately, there has been a positive shift in the awareness of PCOS in recent years. More attention is being given to this condition, and efforts are being made to educate both the medical community and the general public about its prevalence and impact. With increased awareness, more women are able to recognize the signs and symptoms of PCOS and seek appropriate medical care. This growing awareness is an important step toward better understanding and support for individuals with PCOS.

Learn About the Symptoms of PCOS

PCOS is a syndrome, which means that every person can have a different experience and different symptoms. However, the most common symptoms of PCOS include weight gain, irregular periods, acne, unwanted hair growth, scalp hair loss, and infertility, as well as anxiety, depression, and disordered eating behaviors. Remember that women may have very different symptoms yet still have issues with their hormones culminating in PCOS, so not all of these will apply to everyone.

Weight Gain

Many women with PCOS are overweight, which has to do with the fact that women with PCOS often have levels of insulin that are too high. Insulin is our storage hormone and when levels rise, it causes your body to favor energy storage over energy usage (read: fat storage vs. fat burn). This means that when levels are always high, your body is always in a state of fat storage. This should help explain why women with PCOS struggle to lose weight, and why someone with PCOS can eat the same amount, or less, than women without PCOS and still be heavier.

Regardless of BMI, women with PCOS tend to be more apple-shaped and struggle with gaining weight in their midsection. Have you ever wondered why men typically gain weight in their belly, but women gain weight in their hips and butt? That’s because testosterone directs fat storage to the belly area (apple shape) and estrogen directs fat storage to the hips, butt, and thighs (pear shape). Since women with PCOS have imbalances in hormones like testosterone, they commonly struggle with stubborn belly fat.

Testosterone is known to play a role in appetite regulation and can impact food cravings and behaviors related to impulsive eating. Research suggests that higher testosterone levels in women, such as those seen in PCOS, may be associated with increased appetite and a greater likelihood of engaging in impulsive eating habits.

Additionally, high insulin levels can disrupt the balance of other hormones involved in appetite regulation, such as leptin and ghrelin. Leptin is a hormone produced by fat cells that signals satiety and reduces hunger, while ghrelin is a hormone that stimulates hunger. Excess insulin can interfere with the normal functioning of these hormones, leading to decreased leptin levels and increased ghrelin levels, which in turn stimulates appetite and cravings.

Another consequence of excess insulin is the breakdown of muscle tissue. Insulin plays a crucial role in promoting muscle growth and preventing muscle breakdown. However, excessive and prolonged insulin elevation can lead to a condition called insulin resistance. In insulin resistance, the body’s cells become less responsive to the effects of insulin. As a result, the muscle cells receive less glucose and nutrients, leading to reduced muscle protein synthesis and increased muscle protein breakdown. This breakdown of muscle tissue can contribute to muscle weakness, loss of muscle mass, and decreased overall physical performance.

Fatigue is another symptom associated with excess insulin. When insulin levels are consistently high, it can lead to chronically elevated levels of blood sugar. This can result in unstable blood sugar levels and difficulty maintaining consistent energy levels throughout the day. The cells may struggle to effectively use glucose as fuel, causing a sense of fatigue and lethargy. Moreover, excess insulin can also disrupt the normal sleep patterns, affecting the quality of rest and leading to feelings of tiredness.

So, what can be done about this? Many healthcare providers recommend weight loss to lower insulin levels, reduce testosterone, and improve symptoms. However, losing weight becomes incredibly challenging when insulin levels are high. Therefore, instead of focusing solely on weight loss, it’s important to prioritize lowering insulin levels as the primary goal for all women diagnosed with PCOS, regardless of age or weight. By addressing insulin levels, improvements in weight and symptom management can be achieved more effectively.

Irregular Periods

One of the hallmark features of PCOS is irregular menstrual periods. Normally, a woman’s menstrual cycle involves the monthly release of an egg from the ovaries, followed by the shedding of the uterine lining if fertilization doesn’t occur. However, in PCOS, hormonal imbalances disrupt this process.

One of the reasons women with PCOS often have irregular menstrual cycles is because their luteinizing hormone (LH) levels are often too high. The surge of LH is what triggers ovulation, which then leads to the menstrual period 2 weeks later. However, when there’s no surge of LH, ovulation doesn’t occur, and as a result, menstruation doesn’t happen either. Sometimes, women may experience bleeding even without ovulation, but this is known as abnormal uterine bleeding and is not associated with the regular menstrual cycle.

Now, what causes these elevated LH levels? Well, it’s related to insulin. Insulin increases the pulsatility of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which is the hormone that signals the pituitary gland to release LH throughout the menstrual cycle instead of just during the mid-cycle surge. It’s yet another frustrating way in which PCOS affects our hormones and throws things off balance.

So, where do the cysts come from? Again, during a normal menstrual cycle, a mature egg is released from the ovaries. However, in PCOS, the eggs may not fully mature and instead form small fluid-filled sacs called cysts. These cysts can accumulate within the ovaries, leading to the characteristic appearance of enlarged ovaries seen in PCOS.

The presence of these cysts is often detected through imaging tests, such as an ultrasound. While the term “cyst” may sound alarming, it’s important to know that most ovarian cysts in PCOS are benign and don’t pose a significant health risk.

It’s worth noting that not all women with PCOS will have visible cysts on their ovaries, and the presence of cysts alone isn’t sufficient for a diagnosis of PCOS.

Oral contraception, also known as birth control pills, can be an effective option for regulating menstrual cycles in women with PCOS. Birth control pills have multiple benefits, including contraceptive and non-contraceptive advantages, such as improved acne, regulation of periods, and lighter periods. Females with PCOS often start using birth control pills at a young age, and they may continue using them throughout young adulthood for these benefits. However, when they eventually stop using hormonal birth control, they may start experiencing symptoms of PCOS that were previously masked by the contraceptive’s effects on their hormones.

A common scenario occurs where a patient decides to stop using hormonal birth control, usually with the intention of trying to conceive. After a few months, they may notice that their periods are irregular or completely absent. It’s natural to think that birth control is to blame in such cases. However, it’s important to understand that the symptoms of PCOS typically start to emerge during puberty, which coincides with the time when many females begin using hormonal birth control. As a result, patients may not have experienced their body’s natural hormonal changes and menstrual cycles fully, leading to confusion and misplaced blame.

It’s essential to clarify that hormonal birth control methods, whether it’s pills, patches, rings, IUDs, or shots, don’t cause PCOS. Birth control may help manage the symptoms of PCOS or regulate menstrual cycles while it’s being used, but it doesn’t cause the condition itself. 

About half of women with PCOS experience acne due to hormonal imbalances. It’s important to note that not all acne is the same. “Hormonal acne” is often seen on the jawline and neck, indicating an increase in testosterone levels. However, if you have acne in the “T-zone” or forehead, it’s more likely influenced by factors like skincare product choices and skin hygiene.

Hormonal acne happens when our body’s natural hormones, like testosterone, amp up the activity of our sebaceous glands. These glands are responsible for keeping our skin healthy and hydrated by producing oil. However, when there’s an excess of testosterone, it can cause these glands to go into overdrive, producing more oil than necessary. This excess oil can clog our pores, create a breeding ground for bacteria, and trigger inflammation, which ultimately leads to those pesky pimples.


Here are a few of the ways that excess testosterone can lead to hormonal acne:

  • Sebaceous Gland Stimulation Testosterone has the power to stimulate our sebaceous glands, which are responsible for producing sebum, the oily substance that keeps our skin lubricated and healthy. But when testosterone levels are elevated, these glands can go into overdrive, producing an excess amount of sebum. Too much sebum can lead to clogged pores and, you guessed it, acne.
  • Increased Sebum Composition – When testosterone levels are high, it can influence the composition of sebum, making it thicker and stickier than usual. This change in consistency can cause some challenges for our skin. Normally, our skin sheds dead skin cells and regulates sebum flow to keep our pores clear and healthy. However, with this altered sebum consistency, the natural process gets a bit disrupted. The thicker and stickier sebum can become trapped in our pores, mixing with dead skin cells and creating a perfect environment for clogged pores to form. And you guessed it — clogged pores often lead to those unwelcome acne breakouts.
  • Inflammation and Bacterial Growth – When our sebaceous glands produce an excess amount of sebum, it can create a perfect environment for the growth of bacteria, specifically a type called Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes). These bacteria love to multiply in clogged pores, which can happen when sebum mixes with dead skin cells and blocks the way out. As acnes bacteria multiply in these clogged pores, they can cause trouble. The presence of bacteria triggers an immune response in our body, leading to inflammation. This inflammation shows up as redness, swelling, and those pesky pimples that we all try to avoid.

While acne is often viewed as a cosmetic issue, it can also serve as a potential indicator of an underlying hormone imbalance, such as in PCOS. But what’s interesting is that the main culprit behind this hormonal imbalance is actually high levels of insulin.

In the case of individuals with PCOS, reducing insulin levels becomes key to improving their complexion and managing acne. That’s where adopting a low insulin lifestyle comes into the picture. By making mindful choices in our diet and lifestyle, we can help bring those insulin levels down and restore hormonal balance. It’s important to remember that achieving clearer skin is not just about surface-level treatments but addressing the underlying cause. By focusing on lowering our insulin levels, we can make significant progress in managing acne and promoting healthier skin from within.

So, if you’re dealing with acne and suspect that it may be linked to a hormone imbalance like PCOS, don’t worry! You have the power to take control of your skin health by embracing a low insulin lifestyle. It’s a journey toward better skin and overall well-being!


Hirsutism, pronounced HUR-soot-iz-um, refers to the presence of black and coarse hairs in females, following a male-type pattern like on the face, chest, back, or lower abdomen. While hirsutism affects about 1 in 10 women, it’s even more common in women with PCOS, affecting up to 75% of them. But why does this happen? Hormones.

You see, androgens, which are male hormones, play a role in determining the type and distribution of hair throughout our bodies. When women with PCOS have increased levels of testosterone, it can lead to the growth of these unwanted hairs. Normally, females have fine and non-pigmented hairs called vellus hairs on their bodies. But when certain hair follicles are exposed to high levels of testosterone, they start growing what we call terminal hairs, which are black and coarse.

You might notice this more during puberty when specific hair follicles that are sensitive to testosterone start growing coarse and black hair, like in the pubic or underarm regions. Other hair follicles on the face and chest are less sensitive to testosterone in females, which is why they don’t typically grow black and coarse hair like males do. However, when testosterone levels get too high, as often seen in women with PCOS, it can trigger these hair follicles to grow those terminal hairs we mentioned earlier.

Now, let’s talk about treatment. Managing hirsutism often involves medications that can help lower insulin and/or testosterone levels. Another option you might consider is laser hair removal. It’s important to remember that treating hirsutism takes time, as hair follicles have a life cycle of about 6 months. So, don’t be discouraged if you don’t see immediate results.

While a low insulin lifestyle may not directly target hirsutism, it can play a significant role in managing the underlying hormonal imbalances that contribute to excessive hair growth in women with PCOS. With consistent effort and lifestyle changes, you can make improvements in unwanted hair growth associated with PCOS hirsutism. Remember, you’re not alone in dealing with this, and there are options available to help you manage hirsutism and feel more confident in your own skin.

Hair Loss

Hormonal hair loss, also known as androgenic alopecia, is a common cause of scalp hair loss in women. It’s aptly named because it stems from elevated levels of testosterone, one of the key hormones involved. Testosterone not only influences the growth of terminal hairs typically seen in males but also affects female scalp hair in other ways.

In the case of androgenic alopecia, testosterone can cause the hair follicles on the scalp to shrink and disrupt the normal hair growth cycle. This can result in thinning hair and eventual hair loss. It’s important to note that hormonal hair loss can occur at any age after puberty, but it becomes more prevalent as women age.

There are several treatment options available for androgenic alopecia. Medications like minoxidil, commonly known as Rogaine, can be applied topically to promote hair growth. Additionally, medications that help lower testosterone levels, such as spironolactone, may be prescribed to address the underlying hormonal imbalance.

In conjunction with these treatments, making dietary changes that focus on lowering insulin levels can be beneficial. By adopting a low insulin lifestyle, you can help lower your insulin levels and improve hormonal imbalance. This is because lowering insulin can play a role in preventing the worsening of hormonal hair loss and supporting healthier hair growth. However, it’s important to remember that treating alopecia takes time, as hair follicles have a life cycle of about 6 months. So, don’t be discouraged if you don’t see immediate results.


PCOS is a common but treatable cause of infertility in women. Many women with PCOS struggle with irregular ovulation, which means that they may not release an egg regularly. In fact, PCOS is the leading cause of anovulation, with around 80% of women who experience irregular ovulation being diagnosed with PCOS.

Wondering if you’re ovulating? One easy way to track ovulation is by using ovulation predictor kits (OPKs). Additionally, the length of your menstrual cycle can provide some clues. Typically, a cycle longer than 35 days may indicate a lack of ovulation, although it’s not always the case.

  • Ovulation
    The reason behind the ovulation challenges in PCOS is the elevated levels of insulin, which lead to increased levels of luteinizing hormone (LH). This, in turn, disrupts the crucial mid-cycle LH surge necessary for ovulation.
  • Implantation
    High levels of insulin lead to increased inflammation and oxidative stress, both of which can negatively impact the implantation process. Additionally, high levels of insulin can affect the production and availability of certain hormones necessary for successful implantation.
  • Placental Development
    High insulin levels lead to chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. Together, this can impair the growth and functioning of the placenta, which can lead to inadequate nutrient and oxygen supply to the developing fetus. This is thought to be one of the reasons why women with PCOS have an increased risk of miscarriage.
  • Pregnancy Outcomes
    Proper management of high insulin levels during pregnancy is crucial for reducing the risk of complications and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and preterm delivery.

By keeping insulin levels low, you can improve ovulation, enhance the likelihood of successful implantation, and support normal placental development. It’s important to work with a healthcare provider specializing in fertility and PCOS to develop a personalized plan and explore the most effective strategies for managing insulin levels and optimizing your chances of conceiving and maintaining a healthy pregnancy.

When it comes to in vitro fertilization (IVF), maintaining low insulin levels becomes even more important. High insulin levels can reduce the chances of successful embryo implantation in the endometrium, leading to lower IVF success rates. While women with PCOS might not be ideal candidates for IVF initially due to high insulin levels, they often have the opportunity to conceive naturally by simply lowering insulin levels.

There are various factors that can make it challenging for couples to conceive, and the specific treatments needed to assist in growing your family may vary. However, alongside any recommended treatments, adopting a low insulin lifestyle can have significant benefits for both the health of the pregnancy and the future health of mom and baby.

By focusing on lowering insulin levels, you can optimize your chances of a healthy pregnancy and pave the way for a brighter future for both you and your little one. It’s important to work closely with your healthcare provider to develop a comprehensive plan that combines appropriate treatments with lifestyle changes aimed at reducing insulin levels. Together, these efforts can help increase the likelihood of a successful pregnancy and contribute to the long-term well-being of you and your baby.

Mood Disorders

Having high insulin levels can really impact your mood and even contribute to mood disorders. Insulin is an important hormone that helps regulate your blood sugar levels by allowing cells to use glucose for energy. However, when insulin levels stay consistently high, it can cause changes in your body that affect how you feel.

One of the main ways that high insulin levels can affect your mood is by messing with the balance of neurotransmitters in your brain. Neurotransmitters are like little messengers that help your brain cells communicate with each other and regulate your mood, emotions, and overall mental well-being. When insulin levels are too high, it can throw off the levels of neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and serotonin.

  • Serotonin
    Serotonin is often called the “feel-good” neurotransmitter because it helps control your mood, sleep, and appetite. When insulin levels are too high, it can throw off the balance of serotonin in your brain, making it less available and less effective. This can lead to symptoms like feeling down, anxious, irritable, or experiencing mood swings.
  • Dopamine
    Dopamine, a neurotransmitter responsible for regulating mood, motivation, and reward, is influenced by insulin levels in the brain. Dopamine helps transmit signals between nerve cells and plays a role in various processes in our body and mind. Studies have shown that when insulin levels are too high, it can affect the balance of dopamine production, release, and breakdown in the brain, leading to symptoms of anxiety and depression.


In addition to its effects on neurotransmitters, having high insulin levels can also contribute to inflammation in your body. Chronic inflammation has been linked to a higher risk of mood disorders, such as depression and anxiety. When your body becomes resistant to insulin, meaning it doesn’t respond to it as well as it should, it often comes with increased levels of inflammatory markers. This ongoing low-grade inflammation can affect how your brain functions and regulate your mood.

Lastly, high insulin levels can mess with your energy levels and sleep patterns. Insulin resistance and problems with how your body handles glucose can throw off your body’s ability to regulate your energy levels. This can leave you feeling tired, low on energy, and can make it difficult to get a good night’s sleep. Sleep problems and not getting enough rest can further contribute to mood issues and lower your overall well-being.

So you see, high insulin levels can mess with the balance of neurotransmitters, cause inflammation, and affect your energy levels and sleep patterns. All of these factors can contribute to mood disorders and have a negative impact on your mental well-being. The good news is that by adopting a low insulin lifestyle, you can improve your body’s sensitivity to insulin, support stable moods, and promote better overall mental health.


Learn More About PCOS

How do I know if I have PCOS?


While there are varying ways of diagnosing PCOS, the most commonly used is the Rotterdam Criteria. The Rotterdam Criteria bases the diagnosis of PCOS on whether you experience symptoms in at least two of the three different symptom categories associated with PCOS.

Category 1: Irregular periods
  • You have menstrual cycles that are either shorter than 21 days or longer than 35 days per cycle, or you have fewer than 8 cycles per year.
Category 2: Symptoms of high testosterone
  • Symptoms of high testosterone include excess weight gain in your abdominal area, acne, coarse unwanted hair growth, and scalp hair loss. You could also have a blood test showing high levels of androgens (i.e., male hormones).
Category 3: Cysts on your ovaries
  • To determine if you have cysts on your ovaries, your healthcare provider will need to perform an ultrasound.

What is the hormone imbalance associated with PCOS?

Did you know that women with PCOS have the highest insulin levels compared to any other disease or population? These elevated insulin levels play a significant role in many of the struggles experienced by women with PCOS. To truly understand how insulin affects the symptoms of PCOS, it’s important to learn about its interactions with reproductive hormones and the menstrual cycle.

Let’s take a journey through the menstrual cycle. As you may already know, the first day of menstruation marks the beginning of the cycle. In the brain, hormone levels start to shift in preparation for ovulation, which is known as the follicular phase. It all starts with a hormone called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which is secreted by the hypothalamus. GnRH stimulates the pituitary gland to release two important hormones: luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). FSH’s job is to prepare an egg, or follicle, for ovulation, while LH is responsible for triggering ovulation itself.

In a normal menstrual cycle, FSH levels are higher than LH in the beginning. This is because FSH is actively involved in preparing the follicle for ovulation. Around days 12-13 of a typical 28-day cycle, there is a significant surge of LH. This surge signals the impending ovulation, which usually occurs a day or two later. If fertilization doesn’t happen, menstruation follows approximately 14 days later. It’s like a beautifully synchronized dance that repeats month after month. However, in women with PCOS, this dance can be offbeat.

In PCOS, LH levels are often too high, which disrupts the surge that triggers ovulation. Without this surge of LH, ovulation may not occur or may be delayed for an extended period. As a result, women with PCOS may experience irregular or infrequent ovulation, which can affect their fertility. Additionally, LH plays another role in PCOS. It stimulates cells in the ovaries to produce testosterone. The elevated LH levels in PCOS can lead to an overproduction of testosterone, contributing to the hormonal imbalances and symptoms associated with PCOS.

Understanding these hormonal dynamics helps us see how high insulin levels in PCOS can contribute to hormonal imbalance. By addressing insulin resistance through adopting a low insulin lifestyle, women with PCOS can work toward restoring a more balanced hormonal environment, improving their symptoms, and increasing their chances of ovulation.

What causes PCOS?

While the specific genetic factors are still being studied, it’s clear that certain genes may be involved in its development. When a baby is exposed to high levels of insulin, testosterone, or anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) during pregnancy, usually because the mother has PCOS, it can cause genetic changes in the baby that contribute to the development of PCOS.

What’s even more intriguing is that studies in mice have shown that these PCOS-related genes can be inherited for at least three generations. This means that a mother might unknowingly pass on the risk of PCOS to her grandchildren or even great-grandchildren. High insulin and testosterone levels during pregnancy not only affect your children but potentially impact multiple future generations.

In fact, it’s estimated that up to 70% of daughters born to women with PCOS will also develop PCOS themselves. Daughters born to mothers with PCOS have a 5-fold increased risk of developing PCOS. This highlights the importance of maintaining low insulin levels before and during pregnancy. By lowering insulin and testosterone levels, we can potentially prevent the transmission of these genetic changes to offspring, reducing their risk of PCOS as well, as the risk for their children and grandchildren.

So, what are these genetic changes that contribute to PCOS? To answer that, we’ll need to get a little science-y. Scientists have identified several genes involved, but one in particular is related to an enzyme called P450c17. This enzyme plays a crucial role in regulating testosterone production in the ovaries. Think of it as a traffic control cop. In women without PCOS, this “traffic cop” slows down the production of testosterone to maintain balanced levels. However, in women with PCOS, there seems to be no traffic control cop at all. It’s as if there isn’t even a stoplight! This enzyme works tirelessly, continuously producing testosterone. And when insulin levels are high, it goes into overdrive, pumping out even more testosterone. This is one of the genetic changes that leads to PCOS — the alteration of P450c17 from a traffic control cop to an always-on green light.

Understanding the impact of these genetic changes helps shed light on why managing insulin levels is crucial in preventing and managing PCOS. By adopting a low insulin lifestyle, you can work toward minimizing these genetic changes and improving the health outcomes for both current and future generations.

What is lean PCOS?

Did you know that there’s a type of PCOS called “lean PCOS” that affects women who are not struggling with their weight? It’s interesting because these patients are often normal weight or even underweight. While their insulin levels may not be as high as those in heavier women with PCOS, they are still higher compared to women without PCOS. This means that even though they have a normal weight, lean women with PCOS still face a higher risk of chronic diseases like insulin resistance and diabetes due to their elevated insulin levels. It’s important to note that it’s not necessarily their weight that causes these chronic conditions, but rather the high insulin levels. However, it’s common for high insulin levels and obesity to be associated with each other.

When it comes to the symptoms of PCOS, lean women with PCOS experience the same concerns related to their hormones. Interestingly, it is believed that the cells in the ovaries responsible for androgen production, called thecal cells, are even more sensitive to insulin in women with lean PCOS. This means that even slight increases in insulin can result in higher levels of testosterone, leading to issues like acne, excessive hair growth, or infertility. Although these insulin levels may not significantly impact their overall weight, they can have dramatic effects on the ovarian cells. Therefore, it’s important for lean women with PCOS to focus on lowering their insulin levels in order to address the overall hormone imbalance. By managing insulin levels, they can potentially improve their symptoms and promote better hormonal health.

How Do I Manage PCOS Symptoms?

Of all the people who are predisposed to having high insulin levels, none come close to women with PCOS. Unfortunately, these women truly bear the brunt of the consequences of high insulin, usually from a very early age. It’s unfortunate that PCOS, being a complex syndrome, often leaves these women without the proper care they need. Despite making up nearly 20% of women, they receive inadequate attention from the healthcare system. This is often because healthcare providers receive minimal education on nutrition and metabolism, while Registered Dietitians have limited knowledge about PCOS specifically. The conflicting research on the topic stems from the fact that reproductive hormone experts aren’t necessarily nutrition experts, and vice versa.

This gap inspired me to create Lilli Health, an initiative focused on educating and promoting a low insulin lifestyle. With Lilli Health, I aim to share my knowledge on PCOS and nutrition to raise awareness among women who are struggling with the syndrome. There’s an abundance of misinformation and fad diets circulating on social media, so my mission is to provide science-backed and evidence-based nutrition information tailored to this group of women, empowering them to manage their syndrome effectively.

The goal of Lilli Health is not only to educate women with PCOS on achieving their health and wellness goals but also to equip them with the necessary tools and resources to adopt a low insulin lifestyle seamlessly. You can delve deeper into the ways in which a low insulin lifestyle can be successful in helping manage PCOS symptoms by reading my book, exploring my blog, and staying tuned for the release of the Lilli app in late 2023!

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